Solutions available to decarbonise the Nordic energy system can be grouped into five tracks: direct electrification; PtX; bioenergy; carbon capture and storage (CCS); and behavioural change. A balance between these must be found, in terms of technical, economic, and social viability.

Power-to-X – A Potential Game Changer for the Power Sector?

With falling renewable electricity costs, increasing end uses and an extensive grid, direct electrification can enable a carbon neutral Nordic energy system.
Read more about direct electrification, the “Central Pillar of Decarbonisation” in chapter 3 here

Power-to-X – A Potential Game Changer for the Power Sector?

While using power to produce fuels can help supply fossil free energy for applications that are difficult to electrify, “PtX” faces competition in the Nordics, where biomass and CO2 storage sites are abundant.
Read more about Power-to-X, a “Potential Game Changer for the Power Sector?” in chapter 4 here

Bioenergy – An important but shifting role

Use cases for biofuels in the Nordic energy system will likely shift from power and heat towards fuels for transport and industry up to 2050. With similar properties to fossil counterparts, biofuels are one of few alternatives for heavy freight and aviation.
Read more about Bioenergy, an “An important but shifting rolein chapter 5 here

Carbon Capture and Storage – Negative Emissions are Essential

It is difficult to imagine a path toward net zero emissions without the use of carbon capture and storage. The importance of CCS technologies is reflected in Nordic national climate targets.
Read more about Bioenergy, an “An important but shifting rolein chapter 6 here

Behavioral change – Behaviour and Acceptance Influence Future Energy Systems

The transition to a carbon neutral Nordic energy system requires new technology and infrastructure, as well as social acceptance and behaviour change, to ease the impacts of emission reductions across different sectors and lower overall costs.
Read more about Behavioral change, how “Behaviour and Acceptance can Influence the Future Energy Systemsin chapter 7here