New industrial processes can avoid process emissions that cannot be reduced by switching to renewable energy. The HYBRIT pilot plant in Sweden aims to produce fossil-free steel using hydrogen instead of coke, Potentially cutting Swedish CO2 by 10% and Finland’s by 7%.

Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) will be necessary for industrial emissions that cannot otherwise be avoided. CCS is also necessary to achieve negative emissions. Norway’s full scale CCS project has studied CO2 capture from a cement plant, a fertiliser factory and a waste-to-energy facility. The CO2 will then be transported by ship to undersea storage.

New carbon storage technologies: Icelandic researchers found that CO2 injected with water into basalt rock formations reacted quickly to form new minerals, becoming permanently stored underground.

Download “10 Insights into the Nordic energy system.”